- Professor Dennis Johnson (Chair) - ext. 5335
- Professor Neil Pelkey - ext. 3589
- Associate Professor Uma Ramakrishnan - ext. 3436
- Assistant Professor George Merovich - ext. 3954
- Lecturer Chuck Yohn (Director, Raystown Field Station) - ext. 3572
The mission of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences is to prepare students for a successful post-graduate career in one or more earth and environmental science fields, and instill values of responsible environmental citizenship in all students who interact with our programs. We do this in accordance with the overall mission of Juniata College.
The Environmental Sciences and Studies (ESS) Department strives to train Juniata College students to solve problems related to Environmental system and to understand how these problems influence aesthetic, economic, natural resource, environmental, intellectual, and ethical issues facing society. ESS students have the opportunity to choose from curricula offered by the department including: (1) environmental economics, (2) environmental science, (3) environmental studies, and (4) wildlife conservation. Environmental science focuses on the scientific study of the relationship between humans and the natural world; Environmental studies examines that relationship from a social science and humanities perspective and Wildlife conservation focuses on an understanding and protection of biodiversity. Environmental Economics uses the tools of economics, finance, and psychology to help solve pollution and natural resource harvesting problems.
Special programs, facilities, or equipment:
- The Raystown Field Station: 365 acres of land available for college use, provides students with environmental research and education opportunities
- Shuster Hall at the Raystown Field Station: a new "green" building, made with 40% recycled materials and energy-efficient design, as a teaching tool and classroom
- Field station residence programs in all semesters (including summer).
- Coastal Marine Science, Semester in India
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer lab
- Multiple Global Positioning System (GPS) units
- Remote Field Course, summer course in Southwestern Desert
- “Hands on experience” starting at the introductory level, through numerous local field trips exploring spectacular geologic sites in the Appalachians
- Extended field trips (2 to 7 days) associated with several upper-level courses
- Remote Field Course in the American Southwest, taught collaboratively with faculty in Biology, Environmental Science and Studies, Anthropology, and Physics
- Student run farm
- Experimental Forest
- GIS Certificate Program
Programs of Emphasis:
- Environmental Economics
- Environmental Science
- Environmental Studies
- Wildlife Conservation
Examples of Individualized Programs of Emphasis:
- Environmental Policy
- Marine Science
- Water and Conflict
Take 4 courses from the required courses below:
- Introduction to ESS (ESS-100)
- Water Resources I (ESS-209)
- Natural Resource Management (ESS-324) or Conservation Biology (ESS-325)
- Environmental Economics(ESS-305) or Environmental Law (ESS-337)
Plus take 2 courses from the optional course below:
- BI-105, Biological Diversity & Ecology + BI 121, Biology Lab
- BI-300, General Ecology
- HS-262, North American Environmental History
- GL-100, Introduction Physical Geology
- ESS-324, Natural Resource Management or ESS-325, Conservation Biology
- ESS-305, Environment Economics or ESS-337, Environmental Law
- ESS-401, Senior Capstone
- GL-202, Historical Geology
6 courses are required for the secondary emphasis.
GIS Certification program:
Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial reasoning are a mainstay knowledge
base for working professionals in environmental science, resource management, local
and regional planning, disease monitoring and evaluation, real estate, military planning,
and social science research. The Juniata GIS certificate program is offered jointly
by the Environmental Science and Studies and the Computer Sceince and Infomration
Technology Departments. We have two tracks to prepare a student for a career in any
of the GIS fields. The first track has a focus on Environmental Science. This track
has more courses in field methods in GIS and spatial analysis. The second track has
a focus on Information Technology. This track has more courses in programming and
data mining. The certificate is open to students in all deparments as well as to Juniata
Requirements for GIS (18-21 credits):
We have designed this certificate based on looking at successful programs. We include tracks in Environmental Science and in Information Technology. The requirements of the certification are as follows:
A. Quantitative field intro (1 course) (4 credits): This section requires the student to have a quantitative introductory class in their field. The requirement of this course is that it has a lab or quantitative section where Excel or other spreadsheet or database program is used to compile and represent or analyze data.
One course from the following:
Environmental Track ESS100 Introduction to Environmental Science
IT Track: IT111 Principles of Information Technology or CS110 Computer Science I.
B. Core Statistics or data analysis (1 course) (3-4 credits): One course from this section must be taken:
Environmental Track: ESS 230 : Environmetrics or BI 305 Biostatistics
IT Track: IM 241: Information Discovery
C. Core Geographic Information Courses (3 courses )(8 credits)
• ESS 330: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (or Methods in Marine Science)
• ESS 337 Advanced Topics in GIS and Remote Sensing
D. Field data collection component (1 course) (3-4 credits): This section is intended to have students exposed to the vagaries of field data collection. It is preferred that students collect spatially explicit data using GPS technoligies or other spatially explicit survey methods. Database manage or other courses that explore the process of data collection will also meet this requirement.
CS 370 Database Management
Environmental Track: (Pick One From)
- ESS 399 Ecology of Fishes—(3)
- ESS 399 Forestry
- ESS 399 Hydrology at the Station—(3)
- ESS 399 Wildlife Techniques (3)
- BIO 399 Field and Stream: Grant & Muth—(4)
- ESS 350 Field Research Methods—(4)
- GL 240 Geological Field Meth. I (4)
E. Capstone or project requirement (1-4):
IT Track: This will normally be a GIS related project done via an IT 307/308 and 380
or 480: Innovation for Industry course series, but it may be done as an independent
study or project stemming from another course.
Environmental Track: This will normally be a GIS related project done via ESS 410 Senior Capstone class, but it may be done as an independent study or project stemming from another course.
Neil Pelkey, PhD.: Associate Professor Environmental Science and Studies and IT
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or (814)641-3589
Dennis Johns, PhD.: Professor and Chair Environmental Science
Email: email@example.com or (814)641- 5335
Loren Rhodes, PhD.: Professor and Chair, Computer Science and Information Technology
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or (814) 641-3620
Sample Internship/Research Experiences:
- Kenai Peninsula, Alaska
- Dept. Fish and Wildlife, Oregon
- Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania
- Game Commission, Pennsylvania
- Army Corps of Engineers
- Regional Math/Science Center, Frostburg State University, Maryland
- Coastal Marine Science Semester in India
- Mangrove Restoration in India Funded by the UN Development Programme
- Most students complete at least one original research or external internship experience.
- In recent years, students have completed internships with the US Geological Survey, National Museum (Smithsonian), PA Department of Environmental Protection, PA Department of Transportation, National Parks Service, and numerous private sector firms.
ESS-100 Environmental Systems I (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) This course introduces students to the concept of systems, reviews ecological systems and then goes on to human systems as these impact the environment. The course will explore the two forces that are at the core of most environmental impacts (climate change, ozone depletion, air and water pollution, and a loss of biodiversity) will be explored as will the fundamental attributes of agriculture, food, soil and water. Throughout, the influence of culture, society, ethics and science on the environmental problems will be discussed. Prerequisites: None.
ESS-110 Environmental Systems II (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,CW) This course is part of a 2-course series designed for freshmen in Environmental Science and Studies. The course introduces students to the concepts of environmental systems and sustainability, review ecological systems and human impact the environment. Students will be introduced to scientific writing - reviewing journal articles; use of bibliographic software; experimental design and hypotheses testing; data analysis and interpretation of results. Environmental problem-solving and use of EXCEL data sheets will also be covered. Prerequisites: ESS POE.
ESS-189 Writing in ESS (Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; CW) ESS189 is designed to introduce freshmen to writing in the sciences, acquire the basic skills and knowledge required to write in the field. Scientific papers often use a standard format that allows researchers to present information clearly and concisely. This style is essential because scientists expect to be able to replicate the study. Students will be taught to critique the different components expected in a scientific paper, and learn to prepare papers in the accepted standard fashion.
ESS-199 Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-4.00 Credits) Allows departments to offer topics not normally scheduled. Prerequisites, corequisites, and fees vary by title.
ESS-206 Global Environmental Issues (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course will explore the key issues affecting our global environment from public health, environmental philosophy and ethics, and advocacy and change. We will explore current environmental issues through readings, lectures, debates, video, and song. These media explore the interface of natural science and ethics. We will also explore how different cultures and regions of vary in approaches to public and environmental health.
ESS-211 Water Lab Practicum (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; N) This is a tutorial to learn basic methods of water quality analysis. Students work in conjunction with commercial water lab, conduction analyses for a local township. Prerequisite: Enrollment is by permission only.
ESS-219 Agroecology (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; N) This course will explore alternate production systems in agriculture as ecological systems.
ESS-224 Wildlife Management (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) Wildlife management incorporates the science and management of wild animals, both rare and common species. Threatened species may require particular knowledge of population structure and processes for effective management, while common species may need control or might be exploited as novel production products. Prerequisites: ESS100 and BI105 and BI121. A special course fee is assessed.
ESS-230 Environmetrics (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,QS) This course is a survey of the various visual, statistical, and modeling approaches commonly used in the analysis of environmental data. The course covers: (1) visual literacy from exploratory data inquisition to poster creation; (2) elementary group comparison such as t-test and ANOVA and their non-parametric analogs;(3) basic systems modeling; and (4) regression modeling techniques based on the generalized linear model framework. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and permission of the instructor.
ESS-235 Environmental Reading (Fall; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; N,CW) This class will explore 2-3 classic and/or modern works in environmental studies and natural history. The writers list includes: Aldo Leopold, Annie Dillard, Dan Dagett, Saul Alinski, Wangari Maathai, Gifford Pinchot, Bill McKibben, Mary Kingsley, Ian McHarg, Wendel Berry, Andrew Lytle, Ester Boserup, Roderick Nash, Vandana Shiva, Rose Reuter, Barry Lopez, Bernd Heinrich and others.
ESS-261 Marine Biology I (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course takes a biological, physiological, and ecological approach to studying life in the oceans. We start with a basic review of the ocean. We will then provide an overview of the oceans as the course has a global focus. We then take a biological tour up the food chain.
ESS-265 Food Fermentation (Spring; Yearly; 1.00 Credit; N) Salt, pH, bacteria, fungi, heat, and evaporation have been used by cultures around the work to preserve and enhance food. We will explore these processes by reading about the processes and then producing some of the simpler products from these traditions including jerky (drying and salting), cheese (bacterial and enzymatic fermentation), artisanal bread (fungal and bacterial fermentation), kimchi (bacterial fermentation), kombucha (Fungal and Bacterial fermentation), essential oils (evaporation and precipitation), and fermented but non-alcoholic ciders (fungal fermentation and pH reduction).
ESS-269 Art As Sustainable Development (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; F,I) Taught in India. Art as a Sustainable Development: Pottery, Beadwork, Leatherwork, and Sculpture (3 Units). Where: Various locations (Auroville, Mahabalipuram, and Kodiakanal). Local coastal industries in India are comprised of a wide variety of artisanship. When: February. Subjects: The arts of coastal India include pottery, beadwork, stonework, leatherwork, and jewelry. This course will provide the opportunity to work with the artists who train local people and produce these works for sale. This will cover introductory classes in these arts. The student will also visit the production factories and cottage industries where these products are produced for market. The student will also compare the economic structure of villages where the artesian communities operate with nearby villages dependent primarily on either agriculture or industry. This comparison will give the students clear perspective on the role of art in sustainable development. Students wishing to further their study in any of these fields may negotiate more time in the studios. Instructors: Angad Vohra (Pottery & Sculpture), Meena (Painting), Gillian (Beadwork & Leatherwork), Francois Grenier (Stonework). Prerequisite: ESS100.
ESS-299 Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 1.00-3.00 Credits; N) Allows the departments to offer special topicsnot normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites, corequisites, and fees vary by title.
ESS-300 Envir.Problem Solving (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; S,N) Students will practice and gain experience in solving actual environmental problems by putting academic theory to work in real world situations. Students will learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of both environmental scientist and environmental studies students. This course serves as preparation for senior research and internships. Prerequisite: ESS100.
ESS-301 Environmental Methods (Either Semester; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) This course deals with a variety of environmental issues and problems. This includes the causes and the scientific and social backgrounds needed to understand them. It also introduces the student to the roles of scientists and engineers in dealing with them. The course involves both quantitative and qualitative assessments. Prerequisites: ESS100 and 1 year of chemistry or permission of the instructor.
ESS-305 Environmental Economics (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S) This course will cover the basics of microeconomic analysis as it applies to the environmental decision making and environmental policy with respect to pollution abetment, resource harvesting, and sustainability analysis. The course will also explore the strengths and weaknesses of economic models of human behavior. Finally, the course explores the growing concern of sustainable and resilient economies. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.
ESS-309 Econometrics (Spring; Yearly; 2.00 Credits; N,Q) A first course in econometrics with forays into regression, optimization, and modeling. Prerequisites: Introductory economics course.
ESS-310 Water Resources I (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; QM,N) This course provides the student with a working overview of the hydrologic cycle, providing the student with the basic concepts of all aspects of hydrology. Particular emphasis is placed on the integrative nature of ecosystems within the watershed, including the interdependencies and driving forces of energy, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the land, and the biosphere. Prerequisites: ESS100.
ESS-320 Environmental Monitoring (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N) This course develops skills in monitoring the environment, with a strong focus on water quality monitoring (both chemical and biological) in a variety of habitats. Environmental site assessment will also be conducted. A weekend-long field trip is required. Prerequisite: ESS100 and ESS200 or permission.
ESS-324 Natural Resource Management (Spring; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course provides a comprehensive coverage of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture and natural resource policies and legislation. It considers renewable and non-renewable resources such as water, land, soil, air, wildlife, and their associated habitats. Prerequisites: ESS100 and BI105 and BI121. A special course fee is as sessed.
ESS-325 Conservation Biology (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S,N) Conservation Biology encompasses biology, politics, ethics, economics and anthropology. The major course objective is the exploration of conservation complexities--important for successful conservation efforts. Other objectives are to gain an understanding of extinction, community conservation, population genetics and demography. This course has a required weekend field trip with a fee added for the trip. Prerequisites: ESS100 or BI105.
ESS-328 Limnology (Fall; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N) An ecology/environmental science course covering inland aquatic environments (lakes and streams). A balanced study of both physical-chemical and biological aspects, it is an appropriate upper level addition to a variety of POE's in natural sciences. Take BI105 and BI121 and ESS100 or permission of the instructor.
ESS-330 Geographical Information Systems (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits) This course is an introduction to a Geographical Information System (GIS), and the course objective is that students gain a basic, partial understanding of GIS concepts, technical issues, and applications using Arc View GIS. It encourages thinking in spatial context. A diverse array of hands-on computer applications and projects are used to understand how geographical data can be analyzed spatially. Students explore analysis techniques in a problem basis learning approach using small team projects. Note: A special course fee is assessed. Prerequisite: ESS100.
ESS-337 Environmental Law (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S) This course will examine the major environmental laws in the United States and major Supreme Court cases covering these statutes. The status covered will be National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), The Clean Water Act (CWA), The Clean Air Acr (CAA), The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and The Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA), The Forest Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Prerequisites: PS101 and ESS100.
ESS-340 Forestry (Fall; Variable; 3.00 Credits; N) This course provides a comprehensive survey of the discipline of forestry and forest ecology with special emphasis on tree identification, timber mensuration, and forest management issues in central Pennsylvania. Prerequisites: ESS100.
ESS-345 Ichthyology (Spring; Odd Years; 4.00 Credits; N,QS) This course provides an in-depth and active, hands-on study of fishes within an evolutionary framework. Lecture explores fish ecology, evolution, diversity, systematics, zoogeography, and conservation. The laboratory focuses on fish classification, fish biology and morphology, and skills needed to identify fishes of the central Appalachians.Prerequisites: BI105 and BI121, junior-level standing, or permission of instructor.
ESS-346 Freshwater Invertebrates (Spring; Even Years; 4.00 Credits; N,QS) This course provides an applied experience studying aquatic invertebrates that occupy freshwater ecosystems of North American. Lecture focuses on invertebrate ecology, sampling, monitoring, and analysis strategies for bioassessment, conservation, and description of taxa. Laboratory focuses on taxonomy, classification, and identification of families of invertebrates of the local central Appalachians. Prerequisites: BI 105/121, junior-level standing, or permission of instructor.
ESS-350 Field Research Methods (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) Field Methodologies is intended for students interested in gaining experience in conducting filed based ecological or environmental research. Students will be lead through the process of investigation, including the generation of research questions, research planning and design, analysis of data, and presentation methods, while giving them the opportunity to conduct independent projects. This is not a techniques/equipment training course; it will fulfill the independent study requirement of the ESS POE. This course will be particularly useful to students considering a field based senior research project. A course in statistics or ecology is highly recommended. Prerequisites: ESS100.
ESS-355 Ornithology (Summer; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) This course provides a comprehensive survey of the comparative biology, ecology, and behavior of birds with a special focus on issues pertaining to conservation management. Laboratory activities focus on field identification of birds and research and monitoring techniques. Prerequisites: BI113 or 1 college level organismal or ecology courses. Note: A special fee is applied. Course will run from June 1st to June 30th. Prerequisite: BI-113.
ESS-361 Field Methods in Marine Systems (Spring; Yearly; 4.00 Credits; N,Q) Taught in India. This is the methods portion of the course including field techniques, quantitative methods, and a scientific writing seminar. The student requirements will be a short paper, four section quizzes and a final exam Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100. Permission of instructor required.
ESS-362 Island Ecosystems (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) Taught in India. This course will introduce the students to island ecosystems from both applied and theoretical viewpoint. The course will run in the Andaman Islands in India. The topics covered will include island fauna, island flora, reef ecosystems, and a ridge to reef view of these complex biotas. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100.
ESS-363 Upland Process and Estuaries (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N) Taught in India. This course will introduce students to estuaries and upland processes. About 50% of the course will be on site with the discussion and activities intended to give a very close view of the processes, ecology, and issues in coastal watersheds and estuaries. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100 and permission of instructor.
ESS-364 Culture, Class and Gender (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,S,I,CW) Taught in India. This course will cover issue of gender and other disadvantaged groups in coastal management. Fishing villages' area often composed of people who are ethnically, religiously, or class wise distinct from upland populations. Women furthermore also have culturally distinct roles in the resource harvesting, production, and processing of natural resources. Course takes place in India. Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and permission of the Center for International Education and ESS100. A trip fee is applied. The course will begin with 2 weeks in India in January and then proceed with weekly writing workshops for the remainder of the semester. Prerequisite: ESS100.
ESS-365 Sustainable Development (Summer; Variable; 3.00 Credits; I,N) This course is a combination of sustainable agriculture, sustainable forestry, coastal fisheries, very low impact living, and ecotourism. We will travel from Chennai to Pondicherry, then to the foothills of the Western Ghats, onward to the coastal port of Kochi in Kerala, and finally to the ecotourism resorts in Kovalam. Prerequisites: SO, JR, or SR standing.
ESS-375 Sustainability (Fall; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,CW,CA) Taught at Raystown Field Station. Students study sustainability, considering the triad of environment, economics and society, with a systems-view, connecting cultural practices to the concept of limits. Energy and Policy and topics focusing on the challenges of cultural change will be studied in depth with lecture, discussion, writing, simulations, field trips and integration with the Sense of Place seminar. Note: Special fees may apply to this course. Prerequisite: ESS100. Corequisites: PACS180 and ESS232 and ESS380.
ESS-377 GIS Advanced Topic (Fall; Variable; 4.00 Credits; N,QS) This course will explore: Spatial decision support systems, Hot spot modeling for home range, disease and crime, Intermediate Image analysis, Habitat classification from multispectral and hyperspectral imagery. Prerequisites: ESS310 or ESS330 or permission of the instructor.
ESS-380 Sense of Place Seminar (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; CA,CW) Taught at Raystown Field Station. This is the " cornerstone " of the Sense of Place semester, managed by one faculty, but comprised of a series of modules taught by various faculty and guest speakers. Module topics cover a range of environmental, ecological, and societal issues connecting to the region. Students will be expected to journal their experiences at RFS as well as complete other writing assignments. Note: There is a course fee assessed. Prerequisites: ESS100 or permission of the instructor.
ESS-399 Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits) Topics vary from year to year. They will focus one or more special environmental skills, methods, approaches or technologies. A laboratory fee will be assessed.
ESS-400 Senior Capstone I (Fall; Even Years; 3.00 Credits) The Senior Capstone course is intended to provide a real-world, project-based experience working on an advanced-level project. The student teams utilize skills they have acquired in their academic career to evaluate and provide potential solutions to realistic environmental tasks. The project will be chosen each semester based on needs and opportunities in local agencies to provide an advanced project that can be done in one semester. Prerequisite: ESS200 and Senior Standing or permission of the instructor.
ESS-401 Senior Capstone II (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; N,S) This course is the second semester of the Senior Capstone. It is intended to provide a real-world, project-based experience working on an advanced- level project. The student teams utilize skills they have acquired in their academic career to evaluate and provide potential solutions to realistic environmental tasks. The project will be chosen each year based on needs and opportunities in local agencies to provide and advanced project that can be done in one year. Prerequisites: ESS100 and Junior or Senior standing or permission.
ESS-410 Water Resources II (Spring; Odd Years; 3.00 Credits; QS,N) This is an advanced hydrology course aimed at furthering the students understanding of the complex interactions of the hydrologic cycle. Particular emphasis will be placed on mathematically modeling the process including precipitation, runoff, infiltration, soil moisture and stream flow. Prerequisites: ESS310 and MA130
ESS-445 Fishery Science & Managment (Fall; Odd Years; 4.00 Credits; H,N,QS) This course is a survey of the elements of fisheries science and management including the biology, ecology, management, and conservation of fisheries and aquatic resources. Emphasis is on whole ecosystem approaches to ecology and management of inland freshwater fisheries of North America and associated habitats. Prerequisites: Bi 105/121 and ESS 325 or permission of instructor.
ESS-450 Environmental Research (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 1.00-6.00 Credits; S) An independent research experience that includes the preparation of a research proposal. Students present research results during weekly meetings with instructor. A research paper is the end point of the research experience. Presentation of results at national meetings is encouraged. May be repeated for up to 15 credits. Prerequisite: ESS100 and ESS300 and permission of the instructor.
ESS-460 Coastal Zone Management (Spring; Yearly; 3.00 Credits; S) Taught in India. This course will cover the current legal status, international treaties, state and central government coastal zone management regulations, and the history and current status of conflict and the attempts to overcome that conflict in India. This includes shrimp farming, over fishing, pollution, shipping, oil spills changes in beach morphology and coastal topography from weirs dams, etc. Prerequisites: GL111 and ESS100.
ESS-490 Environmental Science and Studies Internship (Fall & Spring; Yearly; 2.00-9.00 Credits; N) Note: May be repeated up to a total of 9 hours of credit. Prerequisite: Permission and Jr. or Sr. Standing. Corequisite: ESS495.
ESS-495 Env.Sci.Res./Seminar (Either Semester; Yearly; 2.00-6.00 Credits; N) Requires students to reflect on experience and/or pursue relevant research. Corequisite: ESS490. Prerequisite: Permission and Jr. Sr. standing.
ESS-499 Special Topics (Variable; Variable; 3.00 Credits) Allows the departments to offer special topics not normally offered. Departments may offer more than one special topic. Prerequisites vary by title.
ESS-TUT ESS Teaching Assistant (Variable; Variable; 1.00-3.00 Credits; N)